Fertility regulation benefits the population, protecting the right to life and health, supporting the right of individuals to enjoy their sexuality and the right of children to be born wanted. In addition, it safeguards people’s freedom of conscience to decide whether or not to use a contraceptive method, based on their personal values, safeguards the principle of non-maleficence and the principle of equity and justice. This is fulfilled when services are universally accessible without discrimination and authorities monitor that this condition is respected. Currently, different types of contraceptive methods are available, which are classified into hormonal, barrier, long-acting reversible contraception, emergency contraception and sterilization. All of them must meet the basic conditions of efficacy, safety, acceptability, availability and reversibility.
Healthcare systems in the Middle East & North Africa (MENA) region face challenges in service funding and delivery with policy emphasis in the region currently focused on controlling pharmaceutical expenditure. A key component of pharmaceutical cost-containment is a strong policy for generics aiming to improve uptake and access.
The Brazilian pharmaceutical market has undergone many changes since the introduction of generic drug laws.
According to the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, ANVISA), the approval of medicines aims to improve the Brazilian population's access to better, safe and quality medicines at lower prices.
The creation of the legal system for generic medicines began with the introduction of Law Number 9787 in February 1999 (Brazil 1999). According to the National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria, ANVISA), the approval of medicines aims to improve the Brazilian population's access to better, safe and quality medicines at lower prices.
In an article on ‘How much does the backlog on drug patents cost for health in Brazil?’, Jannuzzi et al. in 2017  showed backlogs in the analysis of patent applications in Brazil. These delays, known as ‘backlogs‘, extend the term of patents granted on medicines and delay the entry of generics into the market.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world today, causing nearly 10 million deaths in 2018 alone. Despite extensive research into new treatments, when these eventually reach the market, they are often very expensive. The strategy of drug repurposing is being applied to identify already approved drug products as potential cancer therapies. This can bring new cancer treatments to patients faster and at a lower price. A review, published in Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy , summarizes approaches used for drug repurposing and discusses the main barriers to uptake.
Non-profit generics drug manufacturers have the potential to make important contributions to reduce foreign dependence on generic drugs in the US, argues an article published in The Journal of Law Medicine and Ethics .
Increasing prices of brand-name drugs in the US, leaves patients with increasing costs at the pharmacy, says a study published in JAMA Network Open .
Difficult-to-make prescription pharmaceuticals marketed in the US consistently meet quality standards even when manufactured outside the country, finds a study published in JAMA Network Open .